Fundamentals of Financial Accounting

Get the outline of the five most important accounting concepts here. Mainly, accounting is controlled by strict legal prospects, and many uncertainties stay.

Recognizing them and having a basic understanding of accounting can enable you to provide valuable support to your finance colleagues. As a bonus, you’ll be better able to grasp and navigate the numerous facets of in-house legal work. Here accounting and legal concepts touch on the same business problem but deal with that as well differently. For more details, you can have Urgent Assignment Help.

Fundamental accounting concepts

Hundreds of pages of laws and regulations must be followed to produce accurate financial accounts.

However, accountants often stick to these five guidelines while putting out a set of financial accounts.

  Accrual Principle

Your company sends products to a client in one fiscal period but doesn’t get paid until the next fiscal period. When should it be entered into the books?

The accrual principle says that you must do the following:

●       Income should be counted regardless of how it is received; the same goes for expenses.

●       When preparing financial statements, the dates on which the associated business operations take place rather than the dates on which monetary transactions take place that is taken into account.

The sale records are in your company’s books in the scenario above. Included in the accounting cycle corresponding to the day the products were dispatched to the customer. Get urgent assignment Australia to know more about this course.

  Matching principle

Your company invests in production machinery in one quarter & makes use of it for the subsequent twenty-four. For bookkeeping purposes, when does the expense truly occur?

It is the goal of the matching principle to achieve parity between income and expenditures. As a result, you should record your expenditures in the same accounting periods as the income they generate, and visa versa.

Your business should therefore divide the expense of the tools into 24 equal quarterly instalments.

  Historical cost Principle

As a result of rises in general real estate values, your company’s main office building is now worth a little bit more. Do the books need to reflect this?

Because accounting is focused on the past, there must be uniformity & comparability in all records. Typically, the historic cost concept is used in financial statements. To have a greater idea about it, have the Urgent Assignment Help.

According to this rule, businesses must keep track of money spent and earned at the prices paid and received. “historic cost” refers to a resource’s true monetary or other value sacrificed or incurred to get an asset. Except if required or permitted by accounting principles, any subsequent appreciation in the asset’s value is not recognized in the financial reports.

However, the books are modified for any investment with a permanent decline in value.

Understanding the value of money in the past is crucial. Because of the volatility of asset and liability values in the market, especially for real estate, it is unacceptable for businesses to report their liabilities and assets at their fair market value. This would undermine the integrity of the accounting, make comparisons between businesses difficult, & make financial statements less trustworthy.

So, the reply is no; your company shouldn’t adjust its books to account for the rising value of its headquarters.

  The conservatism principle

As a result of a severe environmental disaster, your company is planning for the hefty legal costs of potential future lawsuits. Should we factor in these possible expenses?

Theoretically, a few different ways such a financial transaction could be documented. Without safeguards, two accountants could record the same transaction very differently.

By the conservative principle, accountants are obligated to go with the method that results in the smallest net profit or net assets decrease. They need to immediately account for future expenses, like legal fees and settlement costs. Future benefits, like earnings from a new client contract, should be recorded only once they materialize.

The potential fines and legal fees your company may incur because of the environmental incident should be accounted for in detail.

  The principle of substance over form

Your company has leased equipment for the duration of its production run. Although the lessor maintains legal ownership of the equipment, should it be treated as an asset by the lessee?

Financial statements must reflect the economic essence of transactions and other events, not only their legal form, by substance over form principles.

If the lease is only for a few weeks, your company’s entire rent amount should be recorded as an expense, not an asset.

If, on the other side, your company rents the equipment over a longer period, for example, ten years, the deal is frequently economically comparable to a sale with such an associated loan. A lease is recorded as an asset purchase and a liability to the book’s lessor.

Fraud, accounting problems & over-optimism – don’t get duped!

Playing around with or pushing the bounds of these accounting rules beyond where they might go, whether on purpose or out of ignorance, sloppiness, or over-optimism, is at the heart of many accounting and financial reporting scandals and/or frauds in the business world.

However, this issue is sometimes exacerbated because the finance role in businesses is often divided into different sub-departments (forecasting, reporting, managerial accounting, tax, auditing, audit committees, payroll, receivable accounts, and accounts payable).

These problems are often facilitated through the use of a sales, acquisition, M&A, disposition, employment, treasury, leasing, incentive plan, or other legal agreement, either by accident or design.

So, a lawyer with good intentions may end up creating both the source of the problem and the “smoking gun” agreement that proves it.

Lawyers must be familiar with these issues and know who owns them. Also, what the policy positions are, or who to keep escalating and whistle blow to as wish to prevent creating problems for the business, as financial services – in any of its forms – might not even spot them without assistance (and may sometimes also be the architects of the problems). Get online assessment help to learn more about this course. 


Financial statement preparation and accounting methods guide several regulations but may jot down five fundamental principles. The accrual concept, the correspondence theory, the absorption costing principle, the conservative principle, and the idea of substance over form are all examples. Together, they address issues such as how to pay for rented equipment during short and long agreements, the recognition of revenue, the valuation of assets, the allocation of extraordinary costs, and more.

Since these concepts affect many business choices that memorialize in writing, lawyers are okay with them. This will allow them to assist their clients in spotting potential trouble spots before they write the contracts.

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